8) At the school carnival, Mike will play a game in which he will toss a penny, a nickel, and a dime at the same time. He will be awarded 3 points for each coin that lands with heads faceup. Let the random variable x represent the total number of points awarded on any toss of the coins. What is the expected value of x?

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Question:

8) At the school carnival, Mike will play a game in which he will toss a penny, a nickel, and a dime at the same time. He will be awarded 3 points for each coin that lands with heads faceup. Let the random variable x represent the total number of points awarded on any toss of the coins. What is the expected value of x?

The expected value of X representing the average of the total number of points awarded on toss of the coins is 27/8

How to find the mean (expectation) of a random variable?

Supposing that the considered random variable is discrete, we get:

where is its n data values

and is the probability of

How to calculate the probability of an event?

Suppose that there are finite elementary events in the sample space of the considered experiment, and all are equally likely.

Then, suppose we want to find the probability of an event E.

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Then, its probability is given as

where favorable cases are those elementary events who belong to E, and total cases are the size of the sample space.

For this case, we’re given that:

• 3 coins tossed, and its 3 points on each head outcome
• X = total number of points awarded

Now, X can have total 4 values, viz 0, 1, 2, and 3

Their each’s probability is evaluated as:

That means all 3 coins needs to land on tail.

There is, therefore, single way to do so. Whereas, total outcomes possible are (by product rule, as there are 2 outcomes possible for each coin)

Thus, we get:

When single head, that means 3 points, or X = 3

Total outcomes possible = 8,

Single head can occur in 3 different ways, as other two needs to be strictly tails.

Thus,

Two heads means 3+3 = 6 points, or X = 6

Total outcomes possible = 8

Two heads means single tail. Single tail can occur in 3 different ways.

Therefore,

Three heads means 3+3+3 = 9 points, or X = 9
Total outcomes possible = 8

Three heads means no tail, only single way to do it.

Thus,

Therefore, the expectation of X is calculated as:

Thus, the expected value of X is 27/8.